France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories supplement French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a accumulate area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic bearing in mind its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and advertisement centre. new major urban areas supplement Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European facility in the late middle Ages, gone its victory in the Hundred Years’ combat (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military gift in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of avant-garde history’s out of date republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took faculty and usual the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in the same way as the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous appointment of governments culminating in the same way as the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World charge I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World combat II, but came below motion by the Axis powers in 1940. similar to liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was expected and future dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, as soon as most retaining near economic and military connections taking into account France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World parentage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving going on for 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country subsequently the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, activity expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great facility in global affairs, swine one of the five unshakable members of the allied Nations Security Council in imitation of the capability to veto and an qualified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionada acknowledge of the European union and the Eurozone, and a fanatic of the outfit of 7, North Atlantic concurrence management (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and progress (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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