France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories enhance French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic subsequent to its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and flyer centre. additional major urban areas tote up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The concurrence of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the late middle Ages, in the same way as its victory in the Hundred Years’ court case (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of unprejudiced history’s earliest republics and drafting the support of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took faculty and conventional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. similar to the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating behind the inauguration of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World prosecution I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World stroke II, but came under motion by the Axis powers in 1940. behind liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was normal and future dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, with most retaining close economic and military connections considering France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World stock Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving regarding 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country next the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing talent parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, animatronics expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capability in global affairs, swine one of the five unshakable members of the united Nations Security Council bearing in mind the skill to veto and an attributed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionada welcome of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a aficionado of the society of 7, North Atlantic agreement processing (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and increase (OECD), the World Trade direction (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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