France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a combine area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic bearing in mind its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and poster centre. extra major urban areas enhance Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The settlement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the tardy middle Ages, once its victory in the Hundred Years’ feat (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of advanced history’s out of date republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took aptitude and traditional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in imitation of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous attainment of governments culminating taking into account the instigation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World act I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World fighting II, but came below bustle by the Axis powers in 1940. afterward liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was usual and vanguard dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, like most retaining close economic and military links taking into account France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving all but 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country once the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs competently in international rankings of education, health care, excitement expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good skill in global affairs, brute one of the five remaining members of the allied Nations Security Council similar to the capacity to veto and an approved nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European union and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the help of 7, North Atlantic unity presidency (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and forward movement (OECD), the World Trade doling out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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