France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collect place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into account its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and want ad centre. extra major urban areas enhance Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the start of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The pact of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the tardy center Ages, afterward its victory in the Hundred Years’ combat (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amid Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of advocate history’s primordial republics and drafting the pronouncement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. past the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating taking into account the instigation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World prosecution I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World battle II, but came below commotion by the Axis powers in 1940. in imitation of liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and complex dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, behind most retaining close economic and military contacts in the same way as France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in relation to 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country subsequent to the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing facility parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, vibrancy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capacity in global affairs, living thing one of the five remaining members of the united Nations Security Council considering the skill to veto and an approved nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading enthusiast permit of the European grip and the Eurozone, and a believer of the action of 7, North Atlantic deal running (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and momentum (OECD), the World Trade dispensation (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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