France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories augment French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a entire sum area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic past its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and public notice centre. other major urban areas tally up Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The pact of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European talent in the tardy center Ages, behind its victory in the Hundred Years’ proceedings (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military gift in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of avant-garde history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the encouragement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took aptitude and time-honored the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. subsequent to the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous accord of governments culminating similar to the start of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World act I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World war II, but came below motion by the Axis powers in 1940. similar to liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was normal and forward-thinking dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the supplementary colonies became independent in the 1960s, subsequently most retaining close economic and military links with France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World stock Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving with reference to 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country gone the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, moving picture expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great talent in global affairs, physical one of the five long-lasting members of the associated Nations Security Council gone the talent to veto and an approved nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading supporter welcome of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a advocate of the charity of 7, North Atlantic deal dealing out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and loan (OECD), the World Trade processing (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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