Europe is a continent located categorically in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allowance of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be at odds from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies innate geography, the land attach is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several get older before its first conception in classical antiquity. The disaffection of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which correct on a spectrum rather than gone a bright dividing line. The geographic border amid Europe and Asia does not follow any confess boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and allied Kingdom are then transcontinental in that the main allocation is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in other continents.
Europe covers just about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is estranged into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of not quite 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. extra from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration get older marked the end of ancient records and the initiation of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the militant era. before the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the company of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various epoch the Americas, as regards all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French rebellion and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to objector economic, cultural and social modify in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most part in Europe, contributing to a halt in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet linkage and the united States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was separated along the Iron Curtain along with NATO in the West and the Warsaw treaty in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, later a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, following the idea of unifying Europe to attain common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. additional European integration by some states led to the formation of the European union (EU), a remove embassy entity that lies amid a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward before the fall of the Soviet devotion in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes border and immigration controls in the midst of most of its devotee states.
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