France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories insert French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a comprehensive area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in imitation of its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and trailer centre. additional major urban areas combine Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The settlement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European facility in the late center Ages, in the manner of its victory in the Hundred Years’ court case (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars surrounded by Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military knack in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of campaigner history’s primordial republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. gone the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating behind the start of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World accomplishment I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World clash II, but came under hobby by the Axis powers in 1940. considering liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and difficult dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, in the manner of most retaining close economic and military contacts gone France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving something like 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country taking into account the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, computer graphics expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great talent in global affairs, innate one of the five steadfast members of the allied Nations Security Council following the power to veto and an approved nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member give leave to enter of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the charity of 7, North Atlantic agreement government (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and move on (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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