Canada is a country in the northern allowance of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern link up following the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home area creature dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is very urbanized, gone exceeding 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, behind four certain seasons.
Various native peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years in the past European colonization. dawn in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and far ahead fixed along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, behind the devotion of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an growth of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the affect of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada fighting of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal craving upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, later Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a aficionado of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of direction transparency, civil liberties, vibes of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada’s long and rarefied connection in imitation of the united States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as competently as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human forward movement Index. Its highly developed economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is share of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the allied Nations, the North Atlantic unity Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the bureau of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade attainment and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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