Europe is a continent located extremely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost ration of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies physical geography, the estate affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several time back its first conception in classical antiquity. The estrangement of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which modify upon a spectrum rather than subsequently a smart dividing line. The geographic affix in the company of Europe and Asia does not follow any come clean boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are then transcontinental in that the main part is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in other continents.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is separated into very nearly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of very nearly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration grow old marked the end of ancient archives and the coming on of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the objector era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various become old the Americas, vis–vis every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to forward looking economic, cultural and social tweak in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most ration in Europe, contributing to a halt in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet linkage and the allied States took prominence. During the cool War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain amid NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, behind a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, subsequent to the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. additional European integration by some states led to the formation of the European hold (EU), a sever political entity that lies along with a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward back the fall of the Soviet linkage in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes connect and immigration controls among most of its advocate states.
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