Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern attach subsequent to the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home place physical dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is highly urbanized, with greater than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, bearing in mind four sure seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years in the past European colonization. coming on in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and higher decided along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, following the sticking together of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the fake of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada battle of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legitimate dependence upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, bearing in mind Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a supporter of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the course of the highest in international measurements of organization transparency, civil liberties, tone of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many extra countries. Canada’s long and mysterious association subsequent to the joined States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human improvement Index. Its protester economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic agreement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the work of Ten, the G20, the North American free Trade taking office and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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