France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories attach French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a collection place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in the same way as its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and want ad centre. extra major urban areas affix Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The deal of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the tardy middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years’ fighting (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the middle of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of liberal history’s prehistoric republics and drafting the upholding of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and traditional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. with the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating taking into account the instigation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World court case I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World clash II, but came under motion by the Axis powers in 1940. similar to liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was customary and progressive dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, later than most retaining near economic and military contacts following France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World parentage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving with reference to 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country next the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, computer graphics expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good aptitude in global affairs, beast one of the five unshakable members of the associated Nations Security Council following the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionada divulge of the European sticking to and the Eurozone, and a fanatic of the society of 7, North Atlantic settlement processing (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and fee (OECD), the World Trade government (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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