France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories enhance French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a whole area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic behind its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and public notice centre. additional major urban areas put in Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the coming on of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The pact of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the tardy middle Ages, behind its victory in the Hundred Years’ engagement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the middle of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French lawlessness overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of protester history’s primordial republics and drafting the confirmation of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and expected the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. next the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous agreement of governments culminating subsequently the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World deed I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World combat II, but came under bustle by the Axis powers in 1940. taking into consideration liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and forward-thinking dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s, like most retaining close economic and military associates next France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World stock Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving regarding 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country taking into account the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capability in global affairs, bodily one of the five enduring members of the allied Nations Security Council later the skill to veto and an ascribed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading fanatic confess of the European union and the Eurozone, and a advocate of the bureau of 7, North Atlantic harmony presidency (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and innovation (OECD), the World Trade meting out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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