France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories insert French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a sum up area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic taking into consideration its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and flyer centre. additional major urban areas supplement Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The deal of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European facility in the late middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years’ fighting (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars along with Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of enlightened history’s old-fashioned republics and drafting the declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and normal the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. in imitation of the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking office of governments culminating as soon as the start of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World warfare I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World exploit II, but came below interest by the Axis powers in 1940. taking into account liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was traditional and well along dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the new colonies became independent in the 1960s, taking into consideration most retaining close economic and military links in the manner of France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World origin Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving all but 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country in the manner of the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capacity in global affairs, innate one of the five unshakable members of the united Nations Security Council bearing in mind the capacity to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading believer permit of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a aficionada of the organization of 7, North Atlantic unity executive (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and onslaught (OECD), the World Trade management (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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