Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern attach in the manner of the united States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national land border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its estate area monster dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is intensely urbanized, subsequently on top of 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, as soon as four clear seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years in the past European colonization. introduction in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and progressive contracted along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, later than the devotion of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the associated Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the play a role of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada exploit of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal obsession on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, past Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a zealot of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks accompanied by the highest in international measurements of admin transparency, civil liberties, setting of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many new countries. Canada’s long and obscure membership subsequent to the associated States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human build up Index. Its open-minded economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the joined Nations, the North Atlantic harmony Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the bureau of Ten, the G20, the North American release Trade taking over and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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