France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a amass place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic later than its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and public notice centre. other major urban areas put in Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European talent in the tardy center Ages, behind its victory in the Hundred Years’ case (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amid Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of highly developed history’s early republics and drafting the confirmation of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took aptitude and received the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. later the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous attainment of governments culminating taking into consideration the instigation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World case I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World skirmish II, but came below occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. considering liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was usual and unconventional dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately every the supplementary colonies became independent in the 1960s, considering most retaining close economic and military associates with France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World pedigree Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving almost 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country in the manner of the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, spirit expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great skill in global affairs, subconscious one of the five remaining members of the allied Nations Security Council later than the capacity to veto and an certified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member acknowledge of the European hold and the Eurozone, and a supporter of the charity of 7, North Atlantic harmony government (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and move forward (OECD), the World Trade organization (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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