Europe is a continent located utterly in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost portion of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies bodily geography, the house border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several grow old past its first conception in classical antiquity. The unfriendliness of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary upon a spectrum rather than when a bright dividing line. The geographic attach in the midst of Europe and Asia does not follow any make a clean breast boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are as a consequence transcontinental in that the main allowance is in Europe though pockets of their territory are located in further continents.
Europe covers just about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is at odds into just about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of very nearly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. extra from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration get older marked the end of ancient archives and the dawn of the center Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the objector era. in the past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amid the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various era the Americas, just about every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French disorder and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to highly developed economic, cultural and social modify in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most part in Europe, contributing to a halt in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet bond and the united States took prominence. During the chilly War, Europe was estranged along the Iron Curtain along with NATO in the West and the Warsaw unity in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, gone a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, in the manner of the idea of unifying Europe to reach common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. extra European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking together (EU), a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet hold in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes attach and immigration controls among most of its supporter states.
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