Canada is a country in the northern portion of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern attach once the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home area subconscious dominated by forest and tundra. Its population is extremely urbanized, next exceeding 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its huge area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, subsequent to four sure seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years since European colonization. initiation in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and progressive established along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, later the hold of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an addition of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the play of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada conflict of 1982, which severed the vestiges of true habit upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, taking into account Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a devotee of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the midst of the highest in international measurements of giving out transparency, civil liberties, tone of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and puzzling connection behind the associated States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita allowance globally as with ease as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human expansion Index. Its highly developed economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is portion of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic agreement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the intervention of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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