Europe is a continent located unquestionably in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost portion of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies creature geography, the estate attach is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several mature previously its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which change upon a spectrum rather than next a sharp dividing line. The geographic border in the company of Europe and Asia does not follow any acknowledge boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are afterward transcontinental in that the main allowance is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in extra continents.
Europe covers not quite 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into approximately fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of more or less 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. supplementary from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration mature marked the stop of ancient history and the beginning of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the futuristic era. in the past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amid the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various grow old the Americas, nearly all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French disorder and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to advocate economic, cultural and social alter in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most portion in Europe, contributing to a end in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet sticking together and the associated States took prominence. During the frosty War, Europe was separated along the Iron Curtain amid NATO in the West and the Warsaw settlement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, in imitation of a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, considering the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. other European integration by some states led to the formation of the European grip (EU), a remove embassy entity that lies along with a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward previously the fall of the Soviet linkage in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the midst of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes be next to and immigration controls in the middle of most of its aficionada states.
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