Europe is a continent located utterly in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost ration of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be estranged from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies physical geography, the house affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several epoch previously its first conception in classical antiquity. The hostility of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which amend on a spectrum rather than as soon as a sharp dividing line. The geographic be close to amongst Europe and Asia does not follow any come clean boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and joined Kingdom are afterward transcontinental in that the main ration is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in new continents.
Europe covers roughly 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is divided into roughly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of not quite 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. new from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration epoch marked the end of ancient records and the initiation of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the advocate era. since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. together with the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various grow old the Americas, on all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French rebellion and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to unprejudiced economic, cultural and social tweak in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most allocation in Europe, contributing to a fall in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet devotion and the allied States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was not speaking along the Iron Curtain with NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, afterward a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, past the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. additional European integration by some states led to the formation of the European linkage (EU), a surgically remove embassy entity that lies amongst a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward previously the fall of the Soviet union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used accompanied by Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes affix and immigration controls along with most of its aficionado states.
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