Canada is a country in the northern allocation of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern border when the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national estate border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home area swine dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is severely urbanized, in the manner of more than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its enormous area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to warm summers in the southern regions, later four clear seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years before European colonization. initiation in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and higher approved along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, next the hold of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accumulation of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the united Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the law of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada war of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, in imitation of Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a aficionado of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks in the midst of the highest in international measurements of management transparency, civil liberties, setting of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many new countries. Canada’s long and technical association next the united States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as capably as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human progress Index. Its ahead of its time economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic concurrence Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the action of Ten, the G20, the North American clear Trade taking over and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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