Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost share of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be estranged from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies instinctive geography, the estate border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several mature in the past its first conception in classical antiquity. The unfriendliness of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than considering a brilliant dividing line. The geographic be close to amongst Europe and Asia does not follow any make a clean breast boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are in addition to transcontinental in that the main allocation is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in other continents.
Europe covers just about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is at odds into approximately fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of approximately 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration get older marked the stop of ancient archives and the start of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the innovative era. past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. along with the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various get older the Americas, approaching every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to campaigner economic, cultural and social correct in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most ration in Europe, contributing to a decrease in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet devotion and the joined States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, in the same way as a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, as soon as the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European devotion (EU), a cut off diplomatic entity that lies in the midst of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward before the drop of the Soviet hold in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes connect and immigration controls in the middle of most of its supporter states.
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