Europe is a continent located totally in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allocation of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies subconscious geography, the house be next to is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times previously its first conception in classical antiquity. The disaffection of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than as soon as a brilliant dividing line. The geographic connect amid Europe and Asia does not follow any permit boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are in addition to transcontinental in that the main portion is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in supplementary continents.
Europe covers not quite 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is at odds into not quite fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of more or less 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration period marked the stop of ancient archives and the introduction of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the campaigner era. back the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. with the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various mature the Americas, a propos all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to modern economic, cultural and social alter in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most allowance in Europe, contributing to a stop in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet bond and the joined States took prominence. During the chilly War, Europe was at odds along the Iron Curtain surrounded by NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, when a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, once the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking together (EU), a sever embassy entity that lies in the company of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward previously the fall of the Soviet linkage in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes connect and immigration controls in the midst of most of its supporter states.
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