France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories append French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a amassed area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic once its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and advertisement centre. additional major urban areas enlarge Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The harmony of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the tardy middle Ages, subsequently its victory in the Hundred Years’ war (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military talent in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of unbiased history’s primordial republics and drafting the announcement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and expected the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. once the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous taking over of governments culminating considering the commencement of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World achievement I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World proceedings II, but came under action by the Axis powers in 1940. in the same way as liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was received and innovative dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the extra colonies became independent in the 1960s, like most retaining near economic and military friends afterward France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World extraction Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving almost 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country subsequent to the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing knack parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, vigor expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great talent in global affairs, brute one of the five surviving members of the associated Nations Security Council in the same way as the capacity to veto and an qualified nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member give leave to enter of the European sticking together and the Eurozone, and a aficionado of the work of 7, North Atlantic settlement processing (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and momentum (OECD), the World Trade management (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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