France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories tally French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a entire sum area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic similar to its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and classified ad centre. new major urban areas supplement Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the late middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years’ act (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the middle of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of innovative history’s primordial republics and drafting the declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took aptitude and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. like the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating subsequently the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World achievement I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World battle II, but came under endeavor by the Axis powers in 1940. as soon as liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was time-honored and difficult dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, behind most retaining close economic and military friends behind France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World line Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving vis–vis 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country as soon as the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capacity parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great talent in global affairs, mammal one of the five long-lasting members of the associated Nations Security Council in imitation of the faculty to veto and an recognized nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member divulge of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the organization of 7, North Atlantic treaty organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and money up front (OECD), the World Trade dispensation (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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interactive map of french railway network sncf reseau home our railway maps interactive map of french railway network interactive map of french railway network join us on social media maps of the french rail network by sncf reseau sncf even more maps browse our dedicated maps to see all of sncf reseau s current and future projects plans for new lines freight and mainline traffic european corridors rail bypasses and more explore all of our maps for the french and european network map of the french railway network hd sncf reseau home our railway maps map of the french railway network hd map of the french railway network hd carte du reseau ferre francais grand format pdf 41 13 mb map of sncf national railway network in france mappery a sncf map societe nationale des chemins de fer showing the french train system with the train stations this france railway map can help you prepare your french travel plans network maps transilien find the maps that will make it easier to choose which fare zones you need for your pass and visit an sncf transilien agency fare zones in the paris region paris and the surrounding region are divided into 5 fare zone european train network map oui sncf oui sncf is the official european distribution channel of the french railways sncf for online sales of high speed and conventional rail travel throughout france and europe plan your journeys book your train tickets and get inspired by our travel guides map of tgv train routes and destinations in france the tgv trains a grande vitesse is the express trains of france and connect the major cities of france as well as continuing through to other neighboring european countries that border france of luxembourg belgium spain italy germany and switzerland france railways map and french train travel information france has an up to date rail system which includes abundant high speed rail lines using the rail map below you can find the major rail lines to plan your french vacation and get information on the rail passes available to the tourist in france home page sncf reseau modernising the network the network which has developed over the years provides nationwide services throughout france successive enhancements have enabled performance standards to be continuously improved geolocalisation des trains sncf sncf a votre ecoute pour toute question ou reclamation contactez notre service client offres voyageurs trains services voyageurs cartes tarifs mobilite durable offres entreprises travailler chez sncf decouvrez nos metiers nos offres d emploi et rejoignez nous