France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories count up French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a comprehensive place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic once its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and personal ad centre. additional major urban areas insert Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the coming on of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The harmony of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European facility in the late middle Ages, subsequently its victory in the Hundred Years’ charge (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the midst of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military skill in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French chaos overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of advanced history’s very old republics and drafting the declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. subsequently the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating similar to the instigation of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World deed I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World stroke II, but came below doings by the Axis powers in 1940. in the same way as liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was received and sophisticated dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the supplementary colonies became independent in the 1960s, later than most retaining close economic and military associates subsequent to France.
France has long been a global centre of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving in this area 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country taking into consideration the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing gift parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, sparkle expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great capability in global affairs, visceral one of the five surviving members of the united Nations Security Council following the faculty to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionada welcome of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a believer of the society of 7, North Atlantic pact organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and improvement (OECD), the World Trade admin (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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