France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories increase French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a comprehensive place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic past its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and flyer centre. additional major urban areas improve Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The unity of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capacity in the late center Ages, similar to its victory in the Hundred Years’ prosecution (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capacity in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of liberal history’s primordial republics and drafting the encouragement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took knack and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. considering the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating next the commencement of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World warfare I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World stroke II, but came under doings by the Axis powers in 1940. subsequently liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was usual and sophisticated dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and nearly every the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, behind most retaining near economic and military contacts next France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World pedigree Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving approximately 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country when the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing faculty parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs skillfully in international rankings of education, health care, vibrancy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good knack in global affairs, mammal one of the five steadfast members of the associated Nations Security Council later than the capacity to veto and an recognized nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading advocate acknowledge of the European bond and the Eurozone, and a aficionado of the outfit of 7, North Atlantic treaty supervision (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and enhance (OECD), the World Trade processing (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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