Europe is a continent located agreed in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allowance of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be at odds from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies swine geography, the estate border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times back its first conception in classical antiquity. The isolation of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which correct upon a spectrum rather than bearing in mind a smart dividing line. The geographic border in the midst of Europe and Asia does not follow any disclose boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are next transcontinental in that the main share is in Europe even if pockets of their territory are located in further continents.
Europe covers more or less 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is on bad terms into approximately fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. other from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than near to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration epoch marked the stop of ancient archives and the arrival of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the ahead of its time era. in the past the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. in the middle of the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas, in relation to all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French disorder and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in great Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to enlightened economic, cultural and social amend in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most share in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet devotion and the united States took prominence. During the chilly War, Europe was at odds along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw agreement in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, when a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, taking into account the idea of unifying Europe to attain common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. additional European integration by some states led to the formation of the European hold (EU), a sever political entity that lies amid a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the drop of the Soviet linkage in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen place abolishes connect and immigration controls accompanied by most of its enthusiast states.
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