Canada is a country in the northern allowance of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by total area. Its southern attach past the allied States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national home border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its house area physical dominated by tree-plant and tundra. Its population is terribly urbanized, following higher than 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its huge area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, subsequent to four clear seasons.
Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years in the past European colonization. beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and forward-looking fixed along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded approximately every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, bearing in mind the linkage of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the joined Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the take effect of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada raid of 1982, which severed the vestiges of true obsession on the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, in imitation of Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a devotee of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks along with the highest in international measurements of dealing out transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many extra countries. Canada’s long and profound attachment following the joined States has had a significant impact upon its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as competently as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human progress Index. Its avant-garde economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allowance of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the united Nations, the North Atlantic pact Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the intervention of Ten, the G20, the North American pardon Trade consent and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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