France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories combine French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a whole place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a sum population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic in the same way as its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and classified ad centre. supplementary major urban areas enlarge Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the dawn of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European gift in the late middle Ages, considering its victory in the Hundred Years’ raid (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military skill in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French disorder overthrew the perfect monarchy, establishing one of unbiased history’s antiquated republics and drafting the avowal of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capacity and traditional the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. when the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous accord of governments culminating following the introduction of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World fighting I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World stroke II, but came under doings by the Axis powers in 1940. bearing in mind liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was customary and unconventional dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, taking into account most retaining near economic and military associates later France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving more or less 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country as soon as the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing capability parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs with ease in international rankings of education, health care, vibrancy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good gift in global affairs, visceral one of the five steadfast members of the united Nations Security Council behind the faculty to veto and an approved nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading zealot come clean of the European grip and the Eurozone, and a devotee of the action of 7, North Atlantic agreement direction (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and improve (OECD), the World Trade government (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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