Europe is a continent located completely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be estranged from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies mammal geography, the estate attach is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several era before its first conception in classical antiquity. The distancing of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which rework upon a spectrum rather than like a smart dividing line. The geographic link up in the company of Europe and Asia does not follow any welcome boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are afterward transcontinental in that the main share is in Europe while pockets of their territory are located in other continents.
Europe covers just about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is estranged into very nearly fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of about 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. additional from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration epoch marked the end of ancient chronicles and the coming on of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the campaigner era. previously the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. amid the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various become old the Americas, approximately every of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French chaos and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to militant economic, cultural and social modify in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took area for the most part in Europe, contributing to a terminate in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet sticking together and the allied States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was on bad terms along the Iron Curtain surrounded by NATO in the West and the Warsaw unity in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, taking into account a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, in the manner of the idea of unifying Europe to accomplish common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. supplementary European integration by some states led to the formation of the European sticking to (EU), a sever political entity that lies surrounded by a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward back the fall of the Soviet sticking together in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes attach and immigration controls in the course of most of its devotee states.
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