Europe is a continent located very in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost portion of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies brute geography, the home affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several time before its first conception in classical antiquity. The distancing of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which adjust on a spectrum rather than similar to a sharp dividing line. The geographic be close to in the middle of Europe and Asia does not follow any declare boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and united Kingdom are then transcontinental in that the main allocation is in Europe even though pockets of their territory are located in extra continents.
Europe covers not quite 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of home area). Politically, Europe is divided into more or less fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of roughly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by hot Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers upon much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. new from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration become old marked the stop of ancient records and the beginning of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the broadminded era. previously the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. along with the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various era the Americas, nearly all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French rebellion and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the stop of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the stop of the 18th century, gave rise to liberal economic, cultural and social tweak in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most allowance in Europe, contributing to a halt in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet hold and the united States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was on bad terms along the Iron Curtain in the midst of NATO in the West and the Warsaw pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and drop of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, following the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes every European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. supplementary European integration by some states led to the formation of the European devotion (EU), a remove embassy entity that lies in the company of a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward in the past the drop of the Soviet devotion in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the middle of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes be next to and immigration controls among most of its member states.
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