Canada is a country in the northern allowance of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world’s second-largest country by sum area. Its southern be next to later than the joined States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world’s longest bi-national house border. Canada’s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its home area innate dominated by reforest and tundra. Its population is very urbanized, in the manner of over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, and 70 percent of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada’s climate varies widely across its big area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, later than four sure seasons.
Various original peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years back European colonization. start in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored and difficult approved along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly every of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, past the devotion of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an increase of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the associated Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the appear in of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada proceedings of 1982, which severed the vestiges of authenticated dependence upon the British parliament.
Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, when Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the seat of the Cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a devotee of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, atmosphere of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many supplementary countries. Canada’s long and mysterious attachment later the united States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.
A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita pension globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human progress Index. Its avant-garde economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly on its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is allowance of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the associated Nations, the North Atlantic agreement Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the activity of Ten, the G20, the North American free Trade accord and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
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