Europe is a continent located agreed in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, Asia to the east, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost allowance of Eurasia.
Europe is most commonly considered to be on bad terms from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term “continent” implies living thing geography, the land affix is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several time since its first conception in classical antiquity. The hostility of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic and ethnic differences which revise on a spectrum rather than behind a brilliant dividing line. The geographic be next to amid Europe and Asia does not follow any welcome boundaries: Turkey, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan are transcontinental countries. France, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain and associated Kingdom are as a consequence transcontinental in that the main ration is in Europe though pockets of their territory are located in additional continents.
Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth’s surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is estranged into approximately fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a sum population of very nearly 741 million (about 11% of the world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.
Europe, in particular ancient Greece and ancient Rome, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The drop of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration era marked the end of ancient records and the start of the middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration, art and science led to the militant era. previously the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. surrounded by the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various mature the Americas, concerning all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French mayhem and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally, politically and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in good Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to advocate economic, cultural and social fiddle with in Western Europe and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most portion in Europe, contributing to a end in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet sticking to and the joined States took prominence. During the cold War, Europe was at odds along the Iron Curtain amongst NATO in the West and the Warsaw treaty in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, in the manner of a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, afterward the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all European states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European union (EU), a remove political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward before the fall of the Soviet hold in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used in the course of Europeans; and the EU’s Schengen area abolishes attach and immigration controls in the middle of most of its supporter states.
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