France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories supplement French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a cumulative area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic afterward its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and poster centre. extra major urban areas tally Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the introduction of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European faculty in the late middle Ages, following its victory in the Hundred Years’ engagement (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars in the midst of Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military facility in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French rebellion overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of militant history’s early republics and drafting the statement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took facility and standard the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. gone the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous concurrence of governments culminating considering the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World conflict I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World dogfight II, but came under interest by the Axis powers in 1940. past liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was expected and far ahead dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, in imitation of most retaining close economic and military associates when France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving with reference to 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country considering the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing facility parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs without difficulty in international rankings of education, health care, simulation expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capability in global affairs, mammal one of the five steadfast members of the joined Nations Security Council later than the capability to veto and an credited nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionado own up of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a enthusiast of the intervention of 7, North Atlantic deal giving out (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and forward movement (OECD), the World Trade paperwork (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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