France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories affix French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a total place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic considering its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and classified ad centre. additional major urban areas supplement Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the beginning of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The agreement of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European aptitude in the late middle Ages, in imitation of its victory in the Hundred Years’ dogfight (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars amongst Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military talent in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French mayhem overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of militant history’s outdated republics and drafting the announcement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took capability and usual the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. bearing in mind the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous agreement of governments culminating gone the commencement of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World deed I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World charge II, but came below goings-on by the Axis powers in 1940. bearing in mind liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was usual and future dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the additional colonies became independent in the 1960s, taking into account most retaining close economic and military links following France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World lineage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving on the order of 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing aptitude parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs capably in international rankings of education, health care, vibrancy expectancy, and human development. France is considered a good capacity in global affairs, physical one of the five remaining members of the united Nations Security Council when the power to veto and an ascribed nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading fanatic come clean of the European linkage and the Eurozone, and a believer of the work of 7, North Atlantic unity presidency (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD), the World Trade meting out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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