France (French: [fs] (About this soundlisten)), officially the French Republic (French: Rpublique franaise, pronounced [epyblik fsz] (About this soundlisten)), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan place of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country’s 18 integral regions (five of which are situated overseas) span a sum up place of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million (as of July 2019). France is a unitary semi-presidential republic bearing in mind its capital in Paris, the country’s largest city and main cultural and want ad centre. further major urban areas increase Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.
During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. Rome annexed the place in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia. The deal of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into East Francia, center Francia and West Francia. West Francia, which became the Kingdom of France in 987, emerged as a major European capability in the tardy center Ages, taking into account its victory in the Hundred Years’ combat (13371453). During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. The 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots). France became Europe’s dominant cultural, political, and military capability in the 17th century below Louis XIV. In the tardy 18th century, the French revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, establishing one of unbiased history’s antediluvian republics and drafting the pronouncement of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day.
In the 19th century, Napoleon took talent and customary the First French Empire. His subsequent Napoleonic Wars (180315) shaped the course of continental Europe. behind the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous attainment of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. France was a major participant in World stroke I, from which it emerged victorious, and was one of the Allies in World fighting II, but came under bustle by the Axis powers in 1940. when liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was acknowledged and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War. The Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains today. Algeria and approximately all the further colonies became independent in the 1960s, later than most retaining near economic and military links gone France.
France has long been a global middle of art, science, and philosophy. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of UNESCO World descent Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving on the subject of 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country bearing in mind the world’s sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing skill parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, moving picture expectancy, and human development. France is considered a great power in global affairs, beast one of the five surviving members of the associated Nations Security Council subsequently the capability to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading aficionado acknowledge of the European devotion and the Eurozone, and a zealot of the outfit of 7, North Atlantic agreement direction (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and progress (OECD), the World Trade doling out (WTO), and La Francophonie.
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